sunnuntai 4. marraskuuta 2012

NASA - OMEGA - Hasselblad - Uher - NIKON F

OMEGA Speedmaster Professional


  No chronograph wristwatch has a more storied history than the OMEGA Speedmaster Professional. After rigorous testing by NASA, it was flight-qualified for every piloted flight. Its distinctions include all six lunar landings and a key role in helping the crew survive the troubled Apollo 13 mission. The first watch on the Moon was worn by Buzz Aldrin and it features in some fascinating tales .


NASA - Qualification tests

High temperature: 48 hours at 71°C followed by 30 minutes at 93°C
Low temperature: Four hours at -18°C
Temperature cycling in near-vacuum: Fifteen cycles of heating to 71°C for 45 minutes, followed by cooling to -18°C for 45 minutes at 10−6 atm
Humidity: 250 hours at temperatures between 20°C and 71°C at relative humidity of 95%
Oxygen environment: 100% oxygen at 0.35 atm and 71°C for 48 hours
Shock: Six 11ms 40 G shocks from different directions
Linear acceleration: from 1 to 7.25G within 333 seconds
Low pressure: 90 minutes at 10−6 atm at 71°C followed by 30 minutes at 93°C
High pressure: 1.6 atm for one hour
Vibration: three cycles of 30 minutes vibration varying from 5 to 2000 Hz with minimum 8.8G impulse
Acoustic noise: 30 minutes at 130db from 40 to 10,000 Hz


The OMEGA Speedmaster Professional chronograph Buzz Aldrin was wearing when he stepped onto the lunar surface in July of 1969 is arguably the most famous wristwatch in the world, making it particularly ironic that its whereabouts are unknown.The story of the OMEGA Speedmaster’s long relationship with NASA has been widely reported (including elsewhere on this website). The Apollo 11 astronauts, Aldrin, Neil Armstrong and Michael Collins, wore Speedmasters as had their colleagues on each on of NASA’s manned flights since October 3rd 1962 when Walter “Wally” Schirra wore his personal Speedmaster on his Sigma 7 mission, almost three years before the Speedmaster became flight certified by NASA, a status it has enjoyed ever since.Buzz Aldrin has explained that just after landing on the Moon, the Lunar Module’s on-board electronic timer had a breakdown. Neil Armstrong left his Speedmaster aboard as a reliable backup. As a result, the first watch worn on the Moon was on Aldrin’s wrist.



It would be natural to expect that this timepiece, a true historic artefact, would have a place of honour in a museum dedicated to watches or to spaceflight. Sadly, that’s not the case.In early 1970, Aldrin sent his Speedmaster, along with other personal items, to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. The famous chronograph disappeared en route, probably stolen. It is intriguing to think that the first watch worn on the Moon is very likely in private hands somewhere, possibly with someone who doesn’t know its historic and financial value.It’s a Speedmaster so it’s probably still keeping great time.OMEGA sticks with a winning formula

The contemporary OMEGA Speedmaster Professional could easily be mistaken for one of its namesakes worn on the Moon. It is powered by the OMEGA calibre 1861 which shares lineage with the calibres 321 and 861 which drove the early Speedmasters.Like the original Moonwatch, it has a 42 mm stainless steel case, a shatterproof Hesalite crystal and the full chronograph function which made the Speedmaster famous. Its black dial is complemented by a black bezel ring with a tachymetric scale.After more than fifty years, the OMEGA Speedmaster Professional is largely unchanged. It’s hard to improve on a legend.
Camera  Hasselblad 70mm Apollo 11

  Camera shell - precision cast aluminum Lens: plastic, aluminum, glass

By the end of Project Mercury, Hasselblad cameras such as this one, used in the Apollo 11 command module, became the standard for still photography on American space missions. Known for their high quality construction and ease of use, the electric Swedish-made cameras featured a motor-driven mechanism that prepared the film and shutter when the camera was activated. Hasselblad cameras could be modified for use inside the spacecraft or on the lunar surface, with easily detachable black and white or color film magazines.
NASA transferred this camera to the Museum in 1970.

Two of the 500ELs were identical to the ones carried on the Apollo-8, -9 and -10 flights. Each had its own Zeiss Planar f-2.8/80 mm lens. A Zeiss Sonnar f-5.6/250 mm telephoto lens was also carried. One of the conventional 500ELs, along with the telephoto lens and two extra magazines, was in the Apollo-11 Command Module throughout the flight. The other conventional 500EL, and two extra magazines as well, were placed in the lunar module. Also in the lunar module - and making its first journey in space - was a Hasselblad 500EL Data Camera, which was the one to be used on the moon's surface.


1) The Data Camera was fitted with a so-called Reseau plate. The Reseau plate was made of glass and was fitted to the back of the camera body, extremely close to the film plane. The plate was engraved with a number of crosses to form a grid. The intersections were 10 mm apart and accurately calibrated to a tolerance of 0.002 mm. Except for the larger central cross, each of the four arms on a cross was 1 mm long and 0.02 mm wide. The crosses are recorded on every exposed frame and provided a means of determining angular distances between objects in the field-of-view.

(2) The Data Camera was fitted with a new Zeiss lens, a Biogon f-5.6/60 mm, specially designed for NASA, which later became available commercially. Careful calibration tests were performed with the lens fitted in the camera in order to ensure high-quality, low-distortion images. Furthermore, the lens of the camera was fitted with a polarizing filter which could easily be detached.

(3) The Data Camera was given a silver finish to make it more resistant to thermal variations that ranged from full Sun to full shadow helping maintain a more uniform internal temperature. The two magazines carried along with the Data Camera also had silver finishes. Each was fitted with a tether ring so that a cord could be attached when the Lunar Module Pilot lowered the mated magazine and camera from the lunar module to the Commander standing on the lunar surface. The exposed magazines were hoisted the same way.

(4) The Data Camera was modified to prevent accumulation of static electricity. When film is wound in a camera, static electricity is generated on the film surface. Normally, this electricity is dispersed by the metal rims and rollers that guide the film, and by the humidity of the air. In a camera fitted with a Reseau plate, however, the film is guided by the raised edges of the plate. As glass is a non-conductor, the electric charge that builds up at the glass surface can become so heavy that sparks can occur between plate and film - especially if the camera is used in a very dry environment or in vacuum. Sparks cause unpleasant patterns to appear on the film and can be a hazard if the camera is used in an atmosphere of pure oxygen. To conduct the static electricity away from the Reseau plate in the Data Camera, the side of the plate facing the film is coated with an extremely thin conductive layer which is led to the metallic parts of the camera body by two contact springs. Contact is effected by two projecting silver deposits on the conductive layer. The Reseau plate, or register glass, is not a new development in photography. What is most remarkable, however, is that the group of Hasselblad staff working on NASA camera projects in collaboration with Carl Zeiss was successful in applying the idea to a small camera - like the Hasselblad 500EL Data Camera. This camera is not only useful in space photography, it is particularly suitable for all kinds of aerial photography. The special cameras produced in the past for aerial photography were large and intended for a large negative-format - frequently meaning high prices. The Hasselblad 500EL Data Camera with its Reseau plate produced a small and comparatively low-cost camera which gave satisfactory results in aerial photographic work.

UHER 4000 REPORT - L


  UHER 4000-L tape recorder was used to record all noise environments. ... frequency at the Noise Research Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center,

Piper Apache 

Noise-Induced Hearing Problems

Instrumentation

A Beltone 15C clinical audiometer with TDH 39 earphones was used tocomplete the reference audiogram. An Ambco Model 601-D portable audiometer was used in the field for the subsequent tests. The test environment for the field audiograms was an automobile parked in the vicinity of the airport, but removed from the general environment of the flight operations. In all cases, the pure-tone source was calibrated to the 1964 ISO norms.

A UHER 4000-L tape recorder was used to record all noise environments. The noise stimuli were fed to the tape recorder via a General Radio Sound Level Meter, type No. 1551-053. A preflight calibration tone was introduced by a General Radio Sound Level Calibrator, type 1562-A.

The noise levels, as recorded, were analyzed for intensity and frequency at the Noise Research Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. A General Radio Sound Level Meter, type 1565-A was used to spot check noise levels during the investigation. These instruments conform to the USASI USA Standard Specification for General Purpose Sound Level Meters (SI. 4-1961) and IEC Recommendation R 123.


Calibration

Using a General Radio.-Sound Level Calibrator, type 1562-A, the tape was calibrated at 2000 Hz at 114 dB SPL. The tone was fed to the UHER Recorder through the General Radio Sound Level Meter which was calibrated to 114 dB SPL at afweighting level of_20, 000 Hz. This^allowed for complete spectrum analysis. The tape recorder was calibrated for - 12 dB SPL and operated at 7-1/2 ips for maximum fidelity.



The aircraft used in this study was the Twin Engine Piper Apache - Apache 4389P


Noise Spectrum

For each flight, two minutes of preflight noise was recorded. All recordings in the aircraft were made at the right and left ear position of the subjects. Noise levels during aircraft runup, taxi, takeoff, and climb to altitude were recorded. During the flight, 15 minutes of cruise noise were recorded, as well as noise levels for changes in cruise manifold pressure and RPM. Recordings were made during each landing (from initial airport approach), touchdown, taxi, and postflight noise levels. The tape from each flight was taken to the Langley Research Center for spectrum analysis. Inflight noise was monitored in order to note and record any large deviation in the ambient noise level.



Analysis

Spectrum analysis of the field audiometric test environment revealed that it was well within reasonable noise tolerance for threshold measurements. Although the overall noise level for the environment averaged 58 dB SPL, a much lower noise level was found for those frequencies used in audiometric testing . Noise measurements were taken for all twelve flights; however, due to equipment failure only ten tapes were suitable for averaging the operating noise environment. To further lessen the effects of environs mental noise on threshold testing, Rudmose otocups were used with the headphones on the pure-tone audiometer.




NIKON F


  The Nikon F became enormously successful and was the camera design that demonstrated the superiority of the SLR and of the Japanese camera manufacturers. This camera was the first SLR system that was adopted and used seriously by the general population of professional photographers, especially by those photographers covering the Vietnam War, and those news photographers utilizing motor-driven Nikon Fs with 250-exposure backs to record the various launches of the space capsules in the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo space programs, all in the 1960s. After the introduction of the Nikon F, the more expensive rangefinder cameras (those with focal plane shutters) became less attractive. It was originally priced [at US$186 with 50mm f/2 lens...wrong, a Sept 1959 Nikon Inc. NYC ad clearly shows $323 list price]; in 1964 the US price was $323 with a standard prism and f/2 lens.

It was a combination of design elements that made the Nikon F successful. It featured interchangeable prisms and focusing screens; the camera had a depth-of-field preview button; the mirror had lock-up capability; it featured a large bayonet mount and a large lens release button; a single-stroke ratcheted film advance lever; a titanium-foil focal plane shutter; various types of flash synchronization; a rapid rewind lever; a fully removable back. it was a well-made, extremely durable camera, and adhered closely to the then current, successful design scheme of the Nikon rangefinder cameras.


One possible disadvantage the Nikon F had, compared to other professional cameras, was the fact the entire bottom and rear plate was made in one piece and had to be removed to reload the camera. Even so, the camera was a mainstay of professional news photographers desiring a 35 mm SLR. A specially modified Nikon FTn was also taken on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon.







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